Judicial Scrutiny and Fact-Finding in Legal Disputes

Explore a recent legal case where the court’s detailed legal analysis of evidence and fact-finding process played a crucial role in determining the outcome. The judgment highlights the significance of proper examination of facts and the court’s authority to review evidence in-depth. Follow along to see how the court’s scrutiny shaped the resolution of the dispute.


  • The appellants filed two suits against the respondent, seeking specific performance of an agreement of sale dated 28.05.1973.
  • The first appellate court initially ruled in favor of the appellants in the second suit.
  • The appellants alleged that the respondent did not execute the sale deed despite receiving full payment.
  • The Land Tribunal initially ruled in favor of the appellants in a separate matter, but the findings were later set aside by the High Court.
  • The appellants filed another suit alleging that the sale deed in favor of the respondent was nominal and executed as security for a loan.
  • The Trial Court and the Appeals court considered evidence regarding Ex.D-3 and found in favor of the respondent.
  • The High Court held that the sale deed in favor of the respondents was nominal and not meant to be acted upon.
  • The trial court rejected the appellant’s defence and decreed the suit, disbelieving the agreement to sell (Ex.D-3).
  • The trial court concluded that Ex.D-3 lacked details of the suit lands and did not mention any payment of interest.
  • The trial court examined the application for occupancy rights, which identified the respondents as owners and the appellants as tenants.
  • The trial court found discrepancies in the writings on Ex.D-3 compared to the admitted sale deed, Ex.P-1.
  • The High Court upheld the trial court’s judgment, considering Ex.D-3 and other evidence before it.
  • The High Court questioned whether Ex.D-3 could be considered genuine based on the materials on record.
  • The High Court found in favor of the respondent and noted that the trial court’s findings were sound and justified.

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  • The appellants claimed Ex.P-1 was nominal and meant as a security, to be reconveyed after full payment of ₹9000 which was allegedly made to the respondent.
  • The Land Tribunal ordered the respondent’s dispossession, which was set aside by the High Court for reconsideration.
  • Appellants failed to produce evidence of interest payment or full repayment of the principal amount of ₹9000.
  • High Court’s power to determine issues of fact under Section 103 CPC was highlighted.
  • Contradictions between pleading, documents, and oral evidence were noted against the appellants.
  • High Court emphasized that findings of fact can be upset under exceptional circumstances.
  • Importance of framing substantial questions of law under Section 100 CPC was reiterated.
  • Court’s limited factual review under Section 103 CPC was discussed for correcting erroneous findings.
  • High Court’s examination of documents and evidence under Section 103 for correcting findings was justified.
  • The judgment approved the trial court’s reasons for rejecting Ex.D-3, emphasizing the purpose of Section 103 CPC.
  • Courts must not make findings based on conjecture and surmises as it indicates non-application of mind.
  • High Courts have the jurisdiction to decide factual issues under Section 103 IPC under certain circumstances.
  • High Courts can interfere with the first appellate court’s judgment based on sound reasons if evidence on record supports it.
  • Evidence must be sufficient for the High Court to determine any necessary issue for the appeal in a second appeal.
  • A finding of fact can be deemed infirm if relevant material is ignored or irrelevant material is considered, or if the finding is illogical or irrational.
  • The impugned judgment does not warrant interference in the exercise of special leave jurisdiction
  • The appeals lack merit and are dismissed
  • No costs are ordered in this matter

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Case Number: C.A. No.-005033-005034 / 2009

Click here to read/download original judgement

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